Abdu Zubayr - His Biography, Conversion, And Legacy
In the service of the caliphs Abu Bakr (r. 632-634) and Umar (r. 634-644), Abdu Zubayr ibn al-Awwam was an Arab Muslim commander who took part in the early Muslim conquests of Sasanian Iraq (r. 633-634), Byzantine Syria (r. 634-638), and the African Exarchate (r. 639–643).
Through Qusai ibn Kilab, a Quraish chieftain in Mecca who was in his fourth generation, he also shared lineage with Muhammad.
Muhammad himself gave Zubayr the honorary title of Hawari Rasulullah, or faithful bodyguard of the prophet, in recognition of his outstanding performance during the Battle of Khandaq.
Zubayr took part in every military mission that Muhammad himself oversaw.
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Abdu Zubayr was born a Banu Asad citizen. Abdu Zubayr b. al-Awwm, his father, was a close friend of Muhammad. Abdu Zubayr was not only Aisha's nephew, but also Muhammad's distant paternal aunt, making him a distant relative of both.
Young Abdullah actively took part in various Muslim operations against the Sassanid and Byzantine empires. He participated in the Battle of Yarmuk in 636 with his father. King Gregory marched to Sbeitla, Tunisia, the exarchate of Carthage's capital.
In 647 C.E., Gregory lost and was slain in the Battle of Sufetula.
He was respected by the third caliph, E. Uthman, as a trustworthy and competent soldier. He granted al-Zubayr the extraordinary distinction of commenting on his crucial contribution to the war "from the pulpit in Medina" after the conflict.
He might have been a member of Uthman's bodyguard. He was also made a part of the group in charge of creating the official Qur'anic recension. He was one of the twelve men who helped bury Uthman following his murder in 656. According to Madelung, it was likely Abdu Zubayr who "tried to stir his father against him" under the influence of his aunt Aisah, who despised Ali.
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According to legend, Zubayr, who is thought to have been the fourth or fifth adult male convert, was one of the first five men to convert to Islam under the influence of Abu Bakr.
Zubayr was one of the first fifteen people to leave for Abyssinia in 615, and he didn't go again until 616. An uprising against the Najashi, monarch of Aksumite, erupted while he was in Abyssinia. On the banks of the Nile, Najashi encountered the rebels.
The Muslims sent Zubayr to investigate any news coming from Najashi since they were so concerned about losing their patron. He navigated the Nile river using an inflated waterskin till he arrived at the scene of the conflict. He waited until the Najashi vanquished the insurgents before swimming back to the Muslims.
The Muslims waiting were elated when he ran up, brandishing his clothing, and announced the positive battle progress. However, according to a different narrative, the Muslims were already on the shore of the Arabian Peninsula when Zubayr crossed the Red Sea.
Both critics and defenders of Zubayr's legacy believe he was a participant in the first and second Islamic civil wars. He is portrayed by Umayyad writers as a heretic who polluted the Sacred Sanctuary and splintered the Ummah. Because of his own propensity for miserliness and losing his temper, he is reported to have lost support.
Despite being universally considered as legitimate caliphs, the Umayad would later come to be portrayed negatively as evil Muslims who exercised dictatorial power. Nobody casts doubt on Zubayr's piety. Admirers view him as a legitimate opponent of the impious Umayyad caliphate usurpation.
Abdu Zubayr, on the other hand, is frequently referred to as an anti-caliph. Muslims would debate whether it is permissible or forbidden to rebel against an unjust ruler. Yes, the kharijites replied, but many also added that fitna was preferable to preserving the community's stability and unity. Zubayr was mistakenly believed to have rebelled against the caliph, despite his earnest intentions.
However, as he never took the pledge of loyalty, he did not technically rebel. He might have had a comparable number of supporters to Yazid's successor. Differences in how Abdu ibn al-life Zubayr's has been portrayed can be attributed to the Culture War.
Zubayr had himself preferred an elected or chosen caliph, though in the end he, like they, did nothing to formalize this as a mechanism. Many Muslims anticipated that the Abassids, who led a successful insurrection that has never been accused of fitna, would reinstate such a caliph.
The Prophet referred to Abdu Zubayr, one of the very first Muslims, as his "very close supporter." He actually was the first person to ever pull a sword in defense of Islam.
When Yazid I became Caliph, Ibn Abdu Zubayr, who had not been politically engaged under Muawiyah I, refused to swear allegiance to the new Caliph.
Abdu Zubayr's remains was interred in the Prophet's mosque in Medina by Abd-al-Malik.
In 656, Uthman was assassinated. Even though he was aware that his former ally Talha was also a strong candidate, Abdu Zubayr had reason to believe that he would be chosen as the future Caliph. Aisha, the widow of Muhammad, debated, but Ali was chosen. Abdu Zubayr afterwards met with Aisha and Talha in Mecca and asserted that he had only sworn allegiance to Ali under duress.