Ayatollah Moussavi-Ardabili on asset distribution upon divorce

Fatwa, posted 4.22.2010, from Iran, in:
Religious Authority: 
Abdolkarim Mousavi-Ardabili
Fatwa Question or Essay Title: 
Ayatollah Moussavi-Ardabili's on asset distribution upon divorce:

Question: Through contractual arrangements a husband agrees to divide the assets that are acquired through the marriage period giving his wife half a portion of it. In such circumstances, please elaborate:
1. What assets are affected by this provision? Whether all the assets that are accumulated throughout the marriage, or only those assets to which both spouses contributed?
2. If the contractual arrangement affects such properties which only belong to the husband and to which the wife has had no contribution, if such contractual term is valid?
3. If divorce is due to the woman's infertility, would this be counted as her default? Would this be a valid ground not to fulfill such contractual arrangement? Would this cause the wife to only receive half of the assets to which both spouses contributed?

Fatwa:

1. This includes the property that only belong to the husband and to which the wife has not contributed.

2. The contractual term is valid provided a valid consent at the time of undertaking.

3. It seems that the contractual arrangement described above benefits the woman even in the case of her infertility. She will therefore acquire half of marriage assets.

سؤال : مطابق شرط ضمن عقد، زوج متعهد مي شود هرگاه بدون عذر موجه مبادرت به طلاق زوجه اش نمايد بايد نصف مايملك و دارايي محصله خود را كه در ايام زندگي مشترك كسب نموده يا معدل آن را به صورت بلاعوض به زوجه منتقل نمايد. حال بفرماييد: الف) مناط عمل در تعيين نصف مايملك چه نوع اموالي است؟ آيا اموالي است كه با تلاش طرفين تحصيل گرديده يا ملك طلق شوهر را هم شامل مي شود؟ ب) اگر شرط ضمن عقد ملك طلق همسر را هم شامل شود آيا چنين شرطي صحيح است؟ ج) هرگاه طلاق زني به علت نازاي او باشد آيا نازايي وي مي تواند تقصير محسوب شود تا در نتيجه نصف دارايي مشترك به وي تعلق نگيرد يا نازايي تقصير به حساب نمي آيد و چنين زني مستحق نصف دارايي مشترك خواهد بود؟ جواب : الف) ملك طلق شوهر را هم شامل است. ب) اگر پذيرفته باشد اشكالي ندارد. ج) ظاهرا شرط مذكور شامل فرض نازائي زن مي شود پس زن در فرض نازائي با طلاق مالك نصف مي شود. البته مناسب است، توسعه و تضييق مفاد قانون از قانون گذار سوال شود.