The Association of Muslim Jurists of America discusses the conditions for a Muslim being permitted to live in "non-Muslim lands":

Religious Authority: 
Hatem Mohammad Al-Haj Aly
Fatwa Question or Essay Title: 
The Association of Muslim Jurists of America discusses the conditions for a Muslim being permitted to live in "non-Muslim lands":

Question: Since so many non-Muslim lands now contain Muslim people, is it permissible to live in a non-Muslim land?

Answer: This is an enormous issue that can not be summarized in a few words, but the Muslim lands are inhabited by Muslims who practice Islam. The non-Muslim lands are two types: countries at war with the Muslims and those that are at peace (treaty) with Muslims and there are major differences between the two.

For practical purposes, you may live in a non-Muslim land if the following conditions are met:

To be able to freely practice your religion. To be able to preserve your iman (belief) and more importantly, (that of) your children. To not support the non-Muslims in any form of aggression against the Muslims. To have no special skills that are in demand by the Muslims. In such case, you must help them when they ask for your help.