Secondary Sources

The listing below includes the main academic books, journal articles, and conference reports that were consulted in the preparation of this profile. The many news articles and non-scholarly websites that were consulted in the preparation of this profile are not included in the listing below but are rather embedded as links in the profile text itself.

Islam and Nation Building

Anne-Claire Kerbœuf. 2005. The Cairo Fire of 26 January 1952 and the Interpretations of History. In Arthur Goldschmidt, Amy J. Johnson, and Barak A. Salmoni (eds). Re-Envisioning Egypt, 1919-1952. Cairo, Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press.

Tamir Moustafa. 2000. Conflict and Cooperation between the State and Religious Institutions in Contemporary Egypt. International Journal of Middle East Studies 32(1): 3-22.

Eugene Rogan. 2009. The Arabs: A History. New York: Basic Books.

Islam and the Constitution

Tamir Moustafa. 2010. The Islamist Trend in Egyptian Law. Simons Papers in Security and Development, No. 2/2010, School for International Studies, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, May.

Islam and the Legal System

Abdeen Kandil. 2010. Gender and Migration: The Case of Egypt. San Diego di Fiesole, Italy: European University Institute.

Suad Joseph and Afsaneh Najmabadi. 2005. Family, law, and politics. In The Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures:. Leiden: The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV.

George N. Sfeir. 1956. The Abolition of Confessional Jurisdiction in Egypt: The Non-Muslim Courts. Middle East Journal. 10(3): 248-256.

Islam and Education

Sami Aldeeb. 2000. Religious Teaching in Egypt and Switzerland. Text sent to the symposium organized by The Movement for Human Rights. Beyrouth.g>

Linda Herrera. 2000. Carving out Civic Spaces: Schooling, the State, and Alternative Education Movements. Conference on NGOs and governance in the Arab Countries. Cairo: Egypt.

Fatma Sayed (2006). Transforming Education in Egypt: Western Influence and Domestic Policy Reform. Cairo and New York: The American University in Cairo Press.

James A. Toronto and Muhammad S. Eissa. 2007. Egypt: Promoting Tolerance, Defending Against Islamism. In Eleanor Abdalla Doumato and Gregory Starrett (eds). Teaching Islam: Textbooks and Religion in the Middle East. Boulder, London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Politics and the Muslim Brotherhood

Nathan J. Brown and Amr Hamzawy. 2008. The Draft Party Platform of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood: Foray into Political Integration or Retreat into Old Positions. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

William L. Cleveland and Marton Bunton. 2009. A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Ana Belén Soage and Jorge Fuentelesaz Franganillo. 2010. The Muslim Brothers in Egypt. In Barry Rubin (ed). The Muslim Brotherhood: The Organization and Policies of a Global Islamist Movement. New York: Palgrave McMillan.

Islam and Political Parties

Brown, N. J., Hamzawy, A., & Ottaway, M. (2006). Islamist Movements and the Democratic Process in the Arab World : Exploring the Gray Zones Washington, DC.

Religious Minorities and Freedom of Religion

Maurits S. Berger. 2003. Apostasy and Public Policy in Contemporary Egypt: An Evaluation of Recent Cases from Egypt's Highest Courts. Human Rights Quarterly 25(3): 720-740.

Al-Azhar and Dar al-Ifta

Steven Barraclough. 1998. Al-Azhar: Between the Government and the Islamists. Middle East Journal 52(2): 236-249.

Salafists in Egypt

Richard Gauvain. 2010. Salafism in Modern Egypt: Panacea or Pest? Political Theology 11(6): 802-825.

Paul Marshall. 2011. Egypt’s Other Extremists. The Hudson Institute.

Juan Jose Escobar Stemmann. 2006. Salafism’s influence and the Radicalization of Muslim Communities in Europe. MERIA 10 (3).

Muslim Militant Groups in Egypt

Khalil al-Anany. 2009. Jihadi Revisionism: Will it Save the World? Massachusetts: Crown Center for Middle East Studies.

Amr Hamzawy and Sarah Grebowski. 2010. From Violence to Moderation: Al-Jama’a Al-Islamiyya and Al-Jihad. Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Rachel Scott. 2003. An ‘Official’ Islamic Response to the Egyptian al-Jihad Movement. Journal of Political Ideologies 8(1): 39-61.

Lawrence Wright. 2007. The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. New York: Vintage Books.

Democratization and Egypt's Political Future

Khaled Elgindy. 2011. Egypt’s Transition Six Months On. From Diversity to Divisiveness. The Brookings Institute.

Tamim Elyan.  August 11, 2011. “Islamists reject Cabinet promises of supra-constitutional principles.”  The Daily News Egypt.

Gallup Center in Abu Dhabi. 2011. Egypt from Tahrir to Transition.

John Pollock. 2011. “Streetbook: How Egyptian and Tunisian youth hacked the Arab Spring.” MIT Technology Review. September.

Eric Trager. 2011. Egypt’s Triangular Power Struggle. Washington Institute for Near East Policy.

Eric Trager.  August 30, 2011. “Egypt's Military Tribunals: Illiberal and Destabilizing.”  Washington Institute for Near East Policy.