The key Muslim political movement in Egypt is the Muslim Brotherhood (Al-Ikhwān Al-Muslimīn) which was founded in 1928 by Egyptian schoolteacher Hasan al-Banna (1906-1949) as a bulwark against the economic, political, and social colonization of Egyptian society by the British. Since that time, the Muslim Brotherhood has played a dynamic part in the Egyptian Political landscape.
While the Muslim Brotherhood’s organizational structures have developed rather stable patterns of associational life, even leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood exhibits a number of internal disagreements and cleavages which surfaced particularly strongly in 2007 with the issuing of a party platform. After the ouster of Mubarak, more cleavages have surfaced. The most recent cleavage took place between the Muslim Brotherhood leadership and Abdel-Moneim Abul Fottouh, who was removed from the organization and decided to run as an independent candidate for the presidency. Similar cleavages appeared among the leadership and Muslim Brotherhood youth, with some joining Aboul Fottouh’s quest for the presidency. Al-Wasat Party, an earlier offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood, is also said to be supporting Abul Fottouh, while another faction of the Muslim Brotherhood is said to be in support of the bid of Mohamed Selim El-Awa for presidency.